On March 5, 2010, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”), the SEC and the various bank regulatory authorities issued guidance to financial institutions, including mutual funds and broker-dealers, on obtaining and retaining beneficial ownership information for anti-money laundering purposes. (http://www.fincen.gov/statutes_regs/guidance/html/fin-2010-g001.html) (the “Guidance”).
In essence, mutual funds, broker-dealers and other financial institutions now are being told to implement new customer due diligence procedures “that are reasonably designed to identify and verify the identity of beneficial owners of an account, as appropriate, based on the institution’s evaluation of risk pertaining to an account.”
According to the Guidance, the “cornerstone of a strong Bank Secrecy Act/Anti-Money Laundering (BSA/AML) compliance program is the adoption and implementation of internal controls, which include comprehensive customer due diligence (CDD) policies, procedures, and processes for all customers, particularly those that present a high risk for money laundering or terrorist financing. … CDD processes should be developed to identify customers who pose heightened money laundering or terrorist financing risks, and should be enhanced in accordance with the institution’s assessment of those risks. … Heightened risks can arise with respect to beneficial owners of accounts because nominal account holders can enable individuals and business entities to conceal the identity of the true owner of assets or property derived from or associated with criminal activity. …
A financial institution may consider implementing these policies and procedures on an enterprise-wide basis. This may include sharing or obtaining beneficial ownership information across business lines, separate legal entities within an enterprise, and affiliated support units. To encourage cost effectiveness, enhance efficiency, and increase availability of potentially relevant information, AML staff may find it useful to cross-check for beneficial ownership information in data systems maintained within the financial institution for other purposes, such as credit underwriting, marketing, or fraud detection.
Customer Due Diligence
As part of an institution’s BSA/AML compliance program, a financial institution should establish and maintain CDD procedures that are reasonably designed to identify and verify the identity of beneficial owners of an account, as appropriate, based on the institution’s evaluation of risk pertaining to an account.
For example, CDD procedures may include the following:
- Determining whether the customer is acting as an agent for or on behalf of another, and if so, obtaining information regarding the capacity in which and on whose behalf the customer is acting.
- Where the customer is a legal entity that is not publicly traded in the United States, such as an unincorporated association, a private investment company (PIC), trust or foundation, obtaining information about the structure or ownership of the entity so as to allow the institution to determine whether the account poses heightened risk.
- Where the customer is a trustee, obtaining information about the trust structure to allow the institution to establish a reasonable understanding of the trust structure and to determine the provider of funds and any persons or entities that have control over the funds or have the power to remove the trustees.
With respect to accounts that have been identified by an institution’s CDD procedures as posing a heightened risk, these accounts should be subjected to enhanced due diligence (EDD) that is reasonably designed to enable compliance with the requirements of the BSA. This may include steps, in accordance with the level of risk presented, to identify and verify beneficial owners, to reasonably understand the sources and uses of funds in the account, and to reasonably understand the relationship between the customer and the beneficial owner.”